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Features of GoThemis #

After you have installed GoThemis, it is ready to use in your application!

Using Themis #

In order to use GoThemis, you need to import modules for relevant cryptosystems:

import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/cell"
import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/compare"
import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/keys"
import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/message"
import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/session"

Key generation #

Asymmetric keypairs #

Themis supports both Elliptic Curve and RSA algorithms for asymmetric cryptography. Algorithm type is chosen according to the generated key type. Asymmetric keys are used by Secure Message and Secure Session objects.

For learning purposes, you can play with Themis Interactive Simulator to use the keys and simulate the whole client-server communication.

Warning: When using public keys of other peers, make sure they come from trusted sources to prevent Man-in-the-Middle attacks.

When handling private keys of your users, make sure the keys are sufficiently protected. You can find key management guidelines here.

To generate asymmetric keypairs, use:

import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/keys"

// Use keys.TypeRSA to generate RSA keys instead
keypair, err := keys.New(keys.TypeEC)

privateKey := keypair.Private
publicKey := keypair.Public

Symmetric keys #

Themis uses highly efficient and secure AES algorithm for symmetric cryptography. A symmetric key is necessary for Secure Cell objects.

Warning: When handling symmetric keys of your users, make sure the keys are sufficiently protected. You can find key management guidelines here.

To generate symmetric keys, use:

import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/keys"

masterKey, err := keys.NewSymmetricKey()

Secure Cell #

Secure Сell is a high-level cryptographic container aimed at protecting arbitrary data stored in various types of storage (e.g., databases, filesystem files, document archives, cloud storage, etc.) It provides both strong symmetric encryption and data authentication mechanism.

The general approach is that given:

  • input: some source data to protect
  • secret: symmetric key or a password
  • context: and an optional “context information”

Secure Cell will produce:

  • cell: the encrypted data
  • authentication token: some authentication data

The purpose of the optional context information (e.g., a database row number or file name) is to establish a secure association between this context and the protected data. In short, even when the secret is known, if the context is incorrect then decryption will fail.

The purpose of the authentication data is to validate that given a correct key or passphrase (and context), the decrypted data is indeed the same as the original source data, and the encrypted data has not been modified.

The authentication data must be stored somewhere. The most convenient way is to simply append it to the encrypted data, but this is not always possible due to the storage architecture of your application. Secure Cell offers variants that address this issue in different ways.

By default, Secure Cell uses AES-256 for encryption. Authentication data takes additional 44 bytes when symmetric keys are used and 70 bytes in case the data is secured with a passphrase.

Secure Cell supports 2 kinds of secrets:

  • Symmetric keys are convenient to store and efficient to use for machines. However, they are relatively long and hard for humans to remember.

  • Passphrases, in contrast, can be shorter and easier to remember.

    However, passphrases are typically much less random than keys. Secure Cell uses a key derivation function (KDF) to compensate for that and achieves security comparable to keys with shorter passphrases. This comes at a significant performance cost though.

Secure Cell supports 3 operation modes:

  • Seal mode is the most secure and easy to use. Your best choice most of the time. This is also the only mode that supports passphrases at the moment.

  • Token Protect mode is just as secure, but a bit harder to use. This is your choice if you need to keep authentication data separate.

  • Context Imprint mode is a length-preserving version of Secure Cell with no additional data stored. Should be used carefully.

Read more about Secure Cell cryptosystem design to understand better the underlying considerations, limitations, and features of each mode.

See full API reference here.

Seal mode #

Seal mode is the most secure and easy to use mode of Secure Cell. This should be your default choice unless you need specific features of the other modes.

Initialise a Secure Cell with a secret of your choice to start using it. Seal mode supports symmetric keys and passphrases.

Each secret type has its pros and cons. Read about Key derivation functions to learn more.
import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/cell"
import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/keys"

symmetricKey, _ := keys.NewSymmetricKey()
scell, err := cell.SealWithKey(symmetricKey)
if err != nil {
        // construction fails if key is empty
}

// OR

scell, err := cell.SealWithPassphrase("a password")
if err != nil {
        // construction fails if passphrase is empty
}

Now you can encrypt your data using the Encrypt method:

plaintext := []byte("a message")
context := []byte("code sample")

encrypted, err := scell.Encrypt(plaintext, context)
if err != nil {
        // plaintext must not be empty
}

The associated context argument is optional and can be set to nil.

Seal mode produces encrypted cells that are slightly bigger than the input:

assert.True(len(encrypted) > len(plaintext))

You can decrypt the data back using the Decrypt method:

decrypted, err := scell.Decrypt(encrypted, context)
if err != nil {
        // handle decryption failure
}

Make sure to initialise the Secure Cell with the same secret and provide the same associated context as used for encryption. Secure Cell will return an error if those are incorrect or if the encrypted data was corrupted.

Token Protect mode #

Token Protect mode should be used if you cannot allow the length of the encrypted data to grow but have additional storage available elsewhere for the authentication token. Other than that, Token Protect mode has the same security properties as the Seal mode.

Initialise a Secure Cell with a secret of your choice to start using it. Token Protect mode supports only symmetric keys.

import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/cell"
import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/keys"

symmetricKey, _ := keys.NewSymmetricKey()
scell, err := cell.TokenProtectWithKey(symmetricKey)
if err != nil {
        // construction fails if key is empty
}

Now you can encrypt the data using the Encrypt method:

plaintext := []byte("a message")
context := []byte("code sample")

encrypted, token, err := scell.Encrypt(plaintext, context)
if err != nil {
        // plaintext must not be empty
}

The associated context argument is optional and can be set to nil.

Token Protect mode produces encrypted text and authentication token separately. Encrypted data has the same size as the input:

assert.Equal(len(encrypted), len(plaintext))

You need to save both the encrypted data and the token, they are necessary for decryption. Use the Decrypt method for that:

decrypted, err := scell.Decrypt(encrypted, token, context)
if err != nil {
        // handle decryption failure
}

Make sure to initialise the Secure Cell with the same secret and provide the same associated context as used for encryption. Secure Cell will return an error if those are incorrect or if the data or the authentication token was corrupted.

Context Imprint mode #

Context Imprint mode should be used if you absolutely cannot allow the length of the encrypted data to grow. This mode is a bit harder to use than the Seal and Token Protect modes. Context Imprint mode also provides slightly weaker integrity guarantees.

Initialise a Secure Cell with a secret of your choice to start using it. Context Imprint mode supports only symmetric keys.

import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/cell"
import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/keys"

symmetricKey, _ := keys.NewSymmetricKey()
scell, err := cell.ContextImprintWithKey(symmetricKey)
if err != nil {
        // construction fails if key is empty
}

Now you can encrypt the data using the Encrypt method:

plaintext := []byte("a message")
context := []byte("code sample")

encrypted, err := scell.Encrypt(plaintext, context)
if err != nil {
        // plaintext and context must not be empty
}
Note: Context Imprint mode requires associated context for encryption and decryption. For the highest level of security, use a different context for each data piece.

Context Imprint mode produces encrypted text of the same size as the input:

assert.Equal(len(encrypted), len(plaintext))

You can decrypt the data back using the Decrypt method:

decrypted, err := scell.Decrypt(encrypted, context)
if err != nil {
        // encrypted data and context must not be empty
}
if !correct(decrypted) {
        // handle decryption failure
}
Warning: In Context Imprint mode, Secure Cell cannot validate correctness of the decrypted data. If an incorrect secret or context is used, or if the data has been corrupted, Secure Cell will return garbage output without reporting an error.

Make sure to initialise the Secure Cell with the same secret and provide the same associated context as used for encryption. You should also do some sanity checks after decryption.


Secure Message #

Secure Message is a lightweight container that can help deliver some message or data to your peer in a secure manner. It provides a sequence-independent, stateless, contextless messaging system. This may be preferred in cases that don’t require frequent sequential message exchange and/or in low-bandwidth contexts.

Secure Message is secure enough to exchange messages from time to time, but if you’d like to have perfect forward secrecy and higher security guarantees, consider using Secure Session instead.

Secure Message offers two modes of operation:

  • In Sign–Verify mode, the message is signed by the sender using their private key, then it is verified by the recipient using the sender’s public key.

    The message is packed in a suitable container and signed with an appropriate algorithm, based on the provided keypair type. Note that the message is not encrypted in this mode.

  • In Encrypt–Decrypt mode, the message will be additionally encrypted with an intermediate symmetric key using Secure Cell in Seal mode.

    The intermediate key is generated in such way that only the recipient can recover it. The sender needs to provide their own private key and the public key of the intended recipient. Correspondingly, to get access to the message content, the recipient will need to use their private key along with the public key of the expected sender.

Read more about Secure Message cryptosystem design to understand better the underlying considerations, limitations, and features of each mode.

See full API reference here.

Signature mode #

Signature mode only adds cryptographic signatures over the messages, enough for anyone to authenticate them and prevent tampering but without additional confidentiality guarantees.

To begin, the sender needs to generate an asymmetric keypair. The private key stays with the sender and the public key should be published. Any recipient with the public key will be able to verify messages signed by the sender which owns the corresponding private key.

The sender initialises Secure Message using their private key:

import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/keys"
import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/message"

keypair, _ := keys.New(keys.TypeEC)

secureMessage := message.New(keypair.Private, nil)

Messages can be signed using the Sign method:

message := []byte("example message")

signed, err := secureMessage.Sign(message)
if err != nil {
        // message must not be empty
}

To verify messages, the recipient first has to obtain the sender’s public key. Secure Message should be initialised with only the public key:

peerPublicKey := &keys.PublicKey{
        Value: // ...
}
secureMessage := message.New(nil, peerPublicKey)

Now the receipent may verify messages signed by the sender using the Verify method:

verified, err := secureMessage.Verify(signed)
if err != nil {
        // handle verification failure
}

Secure Message will return an error if the message has been modified since the sender signed it, or if the message has been signed by someone else, not the expected sender.

Encryption mode #

Encryption mode not only certifies the integrity and authenticity of the message, it also guarantees its confidentialty. That is, only the intended recipient is able to read the encrypted message, as well as to verify that it has been signed by the expected sender and arrived intact.

For this mode, both the sender and the recipient—let’s call them Alice and Bob—each need to generate an asymmetric keypair of their own, and then send their public keys to the other party.

Note: Be sure to authenticate the public keys you receive to prevent Man-in-the-Middle attacks. You can find key management guidelines here.

Alice initialises Secure Message with her private key and Bob’s public key:

import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/keys"
import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/message"

aliceKeypair, _ := keys.New(keys.TypeEC)
bobPublicKey := &keys.PublicKey{
        Value: // received securely
}

aliceSecureMessage := message.New(aliceKeypair.Private, bobPublicKey)

Now Alice can encrypt messages for Bob using the Wrap method:

message := []byte("example message")

encrypted, err := aliceSecureMessage.Wrap(message)
if err != nil {
        // message must not be empty
}

Bob initialises Secure Message with his private key and Alice’s public key:

import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/keys"
import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/message"

bobKeypair, _ := keys.New(keys.TypeEC)
alicePublicKey := &keys.PublicKey{
        Value: // received securely
}

bobSecureMessage := message.New(bobKeypair.Private, alicePublicKey)

With this, Bob is able to decrypt messages received from Alice using the Unwrap method:

decrypted, err := bobSecureMessage.Unwrap(encrypted)
if err != nil {
        // handle decryption failure
}

Bob’s Secure Message will return an error if the message has been modified since Alice encrypted it; or if the message was encrypted by Carol, not by Alice; or if the message was actually encrypted by Alice but for Carol instead, not for Bob.


Secure Session #

Secure Session is a lightweight protocol for securing any kind of network communication, on both private and public networks, including the Internet. It operates on the 5th layer of the network OSI model (the session layer).

Secure Session provides a stateful, sequence-dependent messaging system. This approach is suitable for protecting long-lived peer-to-peer message exchanges where the secure data exchange is tied to a specific session context.

Communication over Secure Session consists of two stages:

  • Session negotiation (key agreement), during which the peers exchange their cryptographic material and authenticate each other. After a successful mutual authentication, each peer derives a session-shared secret and other auxiliary data (session ID, sequence numbers, etc.)

  • Actual data exchange, when the peers securely exchange data provided by higher-layer application protocols.

Read more about Secure Session cryptosystem design to understand better the underlying considerations, get an overview of the protocol and its features, etc.

See full API reference here.

Setting up Secure Session #

Secure Session has two parties called “client” and “server” for the sake of simplicity, but they could be more precisely called “initiator” and “acceptor” – the only difference between the two is in who starts the communication. After the session is established, either party can send messages to their peer whenever it wishes to.

Take a look at code samples in the docs/examples/go directory on GitHub. There you can find examples of Secure Session setup and usage in all modes.

First, both parties have to generate asymmetric keypairs and exchange their public keys. The private keys should never be shared with anyone else.

Note: Secure Session only supports EC keys. RSA support is available per request only.

Each party should also choose a unique peer ID – arbitrary byte sequence identifying their public key. Read more about peer IDs in Secure Session cryptosystem overview. The peer IDs need to be exchanged along with the public keys.

To identify peers, Secure Session uses a callback interface. It calls the GetPublicKeyForId method to locate a public key associated with presented peer ID. Typically, each peer keeps some sort of a database of known public keys and fulfills Secure Session requests from that database.

import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/session"
import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/keys"

type sessionCallbacks struct {
        // ...
}

func (c *sessionCallbacks) GetPublicKeyForId(s *session.SecureSession, id []byte) (*keys.PublicKey) {
        // Retrieve public key for peer "id" from the trusted storage.
        // Return nil if there is no associated key.
        return publicKey
}

func (c *sessionCallbacks) StateChanged(s *session.SecureSession, state int) {
        // Informational callback method, it is called when Secure Session
        // changes state.
        //
        // State constants:
        //   - session.StateIdle
        //   - session.StateNegotiating
        //   - session.StateEstablished
}

Each peer initialises Secure Session with their ID, their private key, and an instance of the callback interface:

import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/session"

var peerID []byte = // ...
var privateKey *keys.PrivateKey = // ...

sessionCallbacks := &sessionCallbacks{
        // ...
}
session, err := session.New(peerID, privateKey, sessionCallbacks)
Note: The same callback interface may be shared by multiple Secure Session instances, provided it is correctly synchronised. Read more about thread safety of Secure Session.

Using Secure Session #

GoThemis supports only buffer-aware API (aka wrap–unwrap mode). It is easy to integrate into existing applications with established network processing path.

Note: We consider buffer-aware API more fit for typical Go applications, so currently Secure Session supports only this mode. However, if you find that callback-oriented API might be a good fit for your use case, let us know.

Establishing connection #

The client initiates the connection and sends the first request to the server:

connectionRequest, err := session.ConnectRequest()

serverTX <- connectionRequest

Then both parties communicate to negotiate the keys and other details until the connection is established:

var peerRX <-chan []byte
var peerTX chan<- []byte

for request := range peerRX {
        reply, sendToPeer, err := session.Unwrap(request)
        if err != nil {
                // Handle negotiation error
        }
        if sendToPeer {
                // Continue negotiation...
                peerTX <- reply
                continue
        }
        if reply == nil {
                // Secure Session established!
                break
        }
}

Exchanging messages #

After the session is established, the parties can proceed with actual message exchange. At this point the client and the server are equal peers – they can both send and receive messages independently, in a duplex manner.

Wrap the messages into Secure Session protocol and send them:

message := []byte("example message")

encryptedMessage, err := session.Wrap(message)

peerTX <- message

You can wrap multiple messages before sending them out. Encrypted messages are independent.

Note: Secure Session allows occasional message loss, slight degree of out-of-order delivery, and some duplication. However, it is still a sequence-dependent protocol. Do your best to avoid interrupting the message stream.

After receiving an encrypted message, you need to unwrap it:

for encryptedMessage := range peerRX {
        decryptedMessage, _, err := session.Unwrap(encryptedMessage)
        if err != nil {
                // handle corrupted messages
        }
        // ...
}

Secure Session ensures message integrity and will return an error if the message has been modified in-flight. It will also detect and report protocol anomalies, such as unexpected messages, outdated messages, etc.


Secure Comparator #

Secure Comparator is an interactive protocol for two parties that compares whether they share the same secret or not. It is built around a Zero-Knowledge Proof-based protocol (Socialist Millionaire’s Protocol), with a number of security enhancements.

Secure Comparator is transport-agnostic. That is, the implementation handles all intricacies of the protocol, but the application has to supply networking capabilities to exchange the messages.

Read more about Secure Comparator cryptosystem design to understand better the underlying considerations, get an overview of the protocol, etc.

See full API reference here.

Comparing secrets #

Secure Comparator has two parties called “client” and “server” for the sake of simplicity, but the only difference between the two is in who initiates the comparison.

Both parties start by initialising Secure Comparator with the secret they need to compare:

import "github.com/cossacklabs/themis/gothemis/compare"

comparison, err := compare.New()

comparison.Append([]byte("shared secret"))

The client initiates the protocol and sends the message to the server:

firstMessage, err := comparison.Begin()

serverTX <- firstMessage

Now, each peer waits for a message from the other one, passes it to Secure Comparator, and gets a response that needs to be sent back. The comparison is complete when the response is empty:

var peerRX <-chan []byte
var peerTX chan<- []byte

for message := range peerRX {
        response, err := comparison.Proceed(message)
        if err != nil {
                // Handle comparison protocol error
        }
        if response == nil {
                // Comparison is complete!
                break
        }
        peerTX <- response
}

Once the comparison is complete, you can get the results (on each side):

result, err := comparison.Result()
if err != nil {
        // Result() will fail if called too early
}
if result == compare.Match {
        // Shared secrets match
}

Secure Comparator performs consistency checks on the protocol messages and will return an error if they were corrupted. But if the other party fails to demonstrate that it has a matching secret, Secure Comparator will only return a negative result.