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Attacks on cryptosystems

Possible attacks on cryptosystems in Themis #

Themis provides 4 basic cryptosystems:

To evaluate the security of each cryptosystem against theoretical attacks, we first need to outline the algorithms used. The table below demonstrates the exact algorithms that constitute structural parts of each cryptosystem. Note that ECDH and ECDSA both work on ANSI X9.62 Prime 256v1 Elliptic curve, so the key length is 256 bits.

Themis Cryptosystem Operation mode Default cryptoalgorithms and protocols
Secure Cell Seal AES-256-GCM
Token Protect AES-256-GCM
Context Imprint AES-256-CTR
Passphrase API PBKDF2 + AES-256-GCM
Secure Message Signature ECDSA or RSA-2048-PSS
Encryption ECDH/ECDSA or RSA-2048-PSS + AES-256-GCM
Secure Session ECDH/ECDSA or RSA-2048-PSS + HMAC-SHA-256 + AES-256-GCM
Secure Comparator SMP + ed25519

Known attacks on Themis #

AES encryption algorithm #

The most famous known attacks on the AES algorithm are:

  • Timing attack (SCA)
  • Biclique attack (Man-in-the-Middle)
  • XSL attack (KPA)
  • Gilbert-Peyrin distinguishing attack (OKMA)

The most powerful of these attacks on the AES is the biclique (Man-in-the-Middle) attack. Its computational complexity is approximately 2^126, 2^190, and 2^190 for AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256 respectively. However, currently this is a seriously impractical attack from an applied point of view, and it has no practical implication on the AES security.

Block cipher modes #

The most famous known attacks on the block cipher modes:

  • Related-Mode attacks (CPA, CCA on ECB, CBC, CFB, OFB, CTR)
  • Padding oracle attacks (SCA on CBC, CFB)

The most powerful attack on the block cipher mode is Vaudenay’s padding oracle attack. Since the cryptosystems of Themis only use AES in GCM/CTR mode, practically speaking, they are secure against the above-mentioned attacks.

HMAC-SHA-256 algorithm #

There are currently no known attacks on HMAC-SHA-256, so it’s extremely secure.

RSA-PSS signatures #

There are currently no known attacks on the RSA-PSS signature algorithm, assuming that the underlying factorisation problem is intractable. In fact, the security of RSA in general totally relies on the factorisation problem. A simple formula can be applied to calculate currently secure key size: (year − 2000) × 32 + 512.

Secure Message and Secure Session have a potential flaw – they support 1024-bit RSA keys – it is technically possible to build the library with such key size. This is done for the sake of compatibility with other cryptosystems. However, by default, the RSA key size in Themis is set to 2048.

ECC algorithms (ECDH, ECDSA) #

All the ECC algorithms rely on the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP). Little to no major progress has been made in improving the algorithms for solving this problem by the mathematical community since it was independently introduced by Koblitz and Miller in 1985. Which means that in theory ECDLP is intractable and ECC algorithms are secure.

The great advantage of ECC algorithms is the key size:

80 163 1024
112 233 2048
128 283 3072
192 409 7680
256 571 15360

The table above provides the comparison of the key sizes in bits needed for achieving similar levels of security.

Analysis of Secure Comparator #

The secureness of Secure Comparator is based on the solution to the Socialist Millionaire Problem (SMP) in Off-the-Record Messaging (OTR) – which, in turn, depends on the discrete logarithm problem (DLP). When moving OTR SMP to ECC domain (ed25519) – DLP becomes ECDLP, which is considered to be more secure because for ECDLP solution there only exist exponential time algorithms (and sub-exponential algorithms exist for DLP).

There are some known threats to OTR SMP. They arise when one of the communicating parties is being dishonest and presents a secret or some of their intermediate parameters are forged. This may cause potential security flaws: i.e., some indirect information about the secret of the honest party may leak if they present their real secret value for comparison. A cheating party would present their fake secret value and then they will be able to learn everything that is implied by the knowledge of x1, …, xn and f(x1, y), …, f(xn, y), where y is a real secret value of the honest party.

Since Secure Comparator involves additional security proofs and verifications (zero-knowledge proofs) on each step, it is considered to be secure against “cheating parties”.

Additional precautions #

All the cryptosystems of Themis also follow these rules:

  • We don’t roll our own crypto.
  • We only use proven public algorithms that are known cryptographically strong.
  • We use encryption with message authentication.
  • We use cryptographically strong pseudorandom number generators and make sure they are seeded with enough entropy.
  • We don’t use weak block cipher modes (ECB, CBC).